If you heard the story of Ancestry DNA test you might be having questions like What is DNA test? What is a Family tree? What is Ancestry Library? Can a DNA test determine ethnicity? Can a simple Saliva sample test determine genetic inherited disease? Can a DNA test determine my ancestry original race? Can Ancestry DNA test for ethnicity give me an accurate result? etc. If you have any of the above questions about Ancestry DNA test you should read this post to find out the benefits of Ancestry DNA test and how a small sample Saliva can benefit you in various ways like finding your Race, ethnicity, ancestry surname, finding your missing family members, identify the inherited genetic disease etc.
Finding the person’s race and Ethnicity or origin have decades of history. A certain group of researchers who were involved in this work were more concentrated in finding the race and Ethnicity of celebrities. Most of this work was based on the data of oral stories collected from peoples who were very close to these celebrities.
The first genomic sequencing of the Neanderthal genome in 2010 has revealed that 1 to 4 percent of the DNA of non-Africans living today comes from Neanderthals. Neanderthals or a group of hominids with very similar genes got together with anatomically modern humans and had kids. Neanderthals are our closest extinct human relative who was lived in Europe and southwestern to central Asia about 400,000 – 40,000 years ago.
Advancement in Genomics and with the development of tools to analyze the human DNA it becomes possible for a person to their Race or Ethnicity within few days or weeks which can be correlated with the ancestral result from the Oral study.
What is Genealogy?
Genealogy is the branch of human genetics which involves the use of genealogical DNA testing together with documentary evidence to infer the relationship between individuals and the anthropological study of human origin.
With the success of Human genome projects, Human genetics is playing a vital role in finding the root of origin of humans and finding the connection between the two or more individuals.
Post fertilization of Sperm with egg, a single cell with an equal proportion of genetic material from both the parents is formed. Due to this process, each generation is carried with a certain genetic marker from their ancestors. Certain genomic markers are passed only from mother to child and thus reveal direct maternal ancestry. Similarly, in the case of men, a number of markers are passed down only from father to son and illuminate a direct paternal ancestry.
Ancestry DNA test:
Ancestry DNA test is the examination of DNA variations in order to find from where a person’s ancestors might have come from and about relationships between families. Certain patterns of genetic variation are often shared among people of particular backgrounds in order to find the common ancestors.
Direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies are now identifying the composition of your ancestry by looking at thousands of DNA markers for each person, then comparing your DNA results to DNA databases from other individuals around the world to identify common ancestors.
Three types of genetic ancestry testing are commonly used for genealogy are:
Family Ancestry DNA test:
Family Ancestry DNA test is the strategy which tests a selection of thousands of markers inherited from ancestors on both sides of the family (Paternal and Maternal) and scattered across your genome. The resulting genomic profile is compared with huge databases to find out if you have DNA markers that are common in certain populations.
Single nucleotide polymorphism:
Single-nucleotide polymorphism is a DNA sequence variation occurring when a single nucleotide in the genome differs between members of a species or paired chromosomes in an individual.
Single nucleotide polymorphism testing:
Single nucleotide polymorphism testing is used to evaluate large numbers of variations across a person’s entire genome during the Family Ancestry research. The results are compared with those of others who have taken the tests to provide an estimate of a person’s ethnic background.
Why do I need to have Family Ancestry DNA test?
- Through Family Ancestry test you are able to know more about your 3-4 generations of grandparents.
- Through this test, you can trace back the origin of your family to the part of the world.
- Family Ancestry test will reveal the variance in the genetic traits among your different family members.
- Through this test, you are able to know more about inherited genetic disease carried through genetic material among different members of your family.
- Genes from your parents determine your traits hence knowing your parents and grandparents traits helps you to know more about your traits genetically with valid proof.
- Some of the conditions like an allergy to specific food items, migraine, etc are carried from parents who can be known from this test.
- Family Ancestry test also shed a light on some of your physical behavioral like stage fear, shyness, depression etc which might be passed to you from your parents through genetic material.
Y chromosome or Paternal Ancestry DNA testing:
Out of 23 pairs of chromosomes, 22 pairs of Autosomal chromosomes are equally carried from both the parents and the 23rd pair of chromosomes determines the person’s sexual traits. The fertilized cell with ‘XX’ chromosome will give female characters and the ‘XY’ chromosomes will give Male characters. Females with’ XX’ chromosomes can pass only ‘X’ chromosomes whereas Male can pass both ‘X’ or ‘Y’ chromosomes to their next generation.
The ‘Y’ chromosomes also known as paternal chromosomes pass the traits from Father to Son. Variations in the Y chromosome passed exclusively from father to son, can be used to explore ancestry in the direct Male line. Due to the lack of Y chromosome in Females, Y chromosome or Parental ancestry testing can only be tested with Males.
Y-DNA testing involves short tandem repeat (STR) and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) testing of the Y-chromosome.
What are the uses of taking Paternal ancestry test?
- Y-DNA test helps the adopted men to discover their paternal surname.
- Y-DNA tests help to find the missing person like cousins, grandparents etc from the Parental line.
- This test helps to identify the Y-linked disease like Y chromosome infertility, Azoospermia, Abnormal or Absent Testicular Development etc.
- This test also used to identify various paternal inherited traits.
Mitochondrial or Maternal Ancestry DNA testing:
Although most DNA is packaged in chromosomes within the cell nucleus, cell structures called mitochondria also have a small amount of their own DNA (known as mitochondrial DNA). This type of testing identifies genetic variations in mitochondrial DNA. Both males and females have mitochondrial DNA, which is passed on from their mothers, so this type of testing can be used by either sex. It provides information about the direct female ancestral line. Maternal DNA testing involves sequencing or testing the HVR-1 or HVR-2 region of the Mitochondrial DNA.
How can I get benefited with Maternal DNA test?
- This test helps in preserving information about female ancestors that may be lost from the historical record because of the way surnames are often passed down.
- This test helps to identify various X- chromosomal linked genetic diseases.
- Maternal DNA testing helps to identify the missing peoples from the maternal line.
- It helps to identify various mitochondrial-related diseases.
Procedure for Ancestry DNA test:
Below are the steps you need to follow in order to get your family tree details:
Select and placing an order for the DNA testing kits:
There are various companies involved in Ancestry DNA which takes the order from online and sends the test kits for samples. Out of three ancestry test available it’s important to select and purchase the test which fits your requirements.
Once an order is placed through online a test kit is shipped straight to you by standard or express routes, no matter where you are in the world.
Check out an link to place a order from Living DNA .
A collection of Sample DNA from Buccal Swab:
For a long time, researchers used DNA extracted from blood and from cell lines of the blood as the preferred source of DNA in human genetics research as these sources produced large quantities of high-quality DNA. Buccal cell usage has been shown by many to be a cost effective and safe method to isolate DNA for various biological experiments especially large epidemiological studies. DNA extraction from saliva can yield high-quality DNA with little to no degradation/fragmentation that is suitable for a variety of DNA assays without the expense of a phlebotomist and can even be acquired through the mail.
Buccal cells are collected using the easy to use Buccal (cheek) swabs which are received along with the test kit. Buccal Swab Kit is easy-to-use, single tube systems for the rapid preparation of DNA from human or other mammalian Buccal (cheek) cells for PCR assays. The format allows processing of one to hundreds of samples in less than an hour. Samples from this method can yield DNA ranging from 0.5 to 3.0 µg.
Post your sample back:
After collecting the DNA sample from one of the sample collection methods it’s important to mail the sample to the given company addresses. Follow the instructions provided in the test kit purchased.
Analysis of the Test results online:
The DNA analysis experiment will take around 10-12 weeks upon the arrival of the test kit. Within 10-12 weeks your results will be ready to explore.
Apart from above uses, you can utilize your result for various purpose like:
- You can link your DNA Test or any other DNA Test activated under your Ancestry account to any family trees that you have created.
- Can share your DNA results of your ethnicity, race etc to others in order for others to mutually find the DNA relationship.
- Can view and match your DNA result with another result to find the peoples with common ancestors.
- The result can be breakdown by sub-region to trace the regions from where your ancestors have been originated.
- You can donate your data for the public domain which helps researchers to trace the origin of specific diseases.
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